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ianity in opposition is the father of many of the modern
movements'of social and political reform. It; might
be^objected that many of the liberties and reforms which
we in England particularly prize, and which the West
claims to represent as against the Soviet system, were
largely developed, and largely made effective, only after
the period when our Christian civilisation had become
predominantly secular. Even the reformers who came
into conflict with the Church after 1700, however, did
not realise to what a degree they had merely secularised
many features of the Christian outlook, though they
imagined that they had entirely cut loose from Christ-
ianity. As twentieth-century pagan civilisations develop
their barbarities we shall realise more and more what—
even amongst non-Christians—has been the leavening
effect of Christian charity and the Christian outlook.

If there is anything which the Christian jnight
peculiarly feel about our European story—though he
could not scientifically prove it or expect his view to be
shared by those who do not share his beliefs—it is an
impression of the liberty and spontaneity and originality
of the spiritual factor in history* For many of the
enemies of Christianity this picture is hidden by the
rigidities to which religion is liable when the spiritual
factor is defective, or by the tendency of ecclesiastical
systems to slide into routine. Yet non-Christian his-
torians have done justice to the amazing power of
spiritual men, though holding that these were defective
in their self-examination and deluded in their spiritual
interpretation of their inner life. It is important to
note that it is the material world that is under the